Yashyizweho kuri 1 April, 2016 | 06:38

Guca “asibesitosi”si imitwe: Ni ukwirinda mbere yo kwivuza

Ubuyobozi bw’ikigo cy’imiturire buvuga ko guca asibesitosi atari imitwe nk’uko bamwe babitekereza. Ngo ni isakaro ritera mu gihe kinini uburwayi ku barikoresheje cyane cyane iyo ayo mategura yavungutseho. kuyica, ngo ni ukwiririnda by’igihe kirekire.

Mu kiganiro ikigo cy’igihugu gishinzwe imiturire(RHA)cyagiranye n’abanyamakuru tariki ya 11 Gashyantare 2016, hagarutswe ku kibazo cy’amategura ya Asibesitos agomba gusamburwa kuko atera indwara. Abanyamakuru babajije niba ataba ari “imitwe”, hagamijwe korohereza abakora ibikoresho by’ubundi bwoko kubona isoko, kubona uko basenya inyubako zitifuzwa, cyangwa guhana abadasenya izo nyubako. Gihamya bashingiraho ni ukuba amazu menshi yaramaze gusamburwa, ariko aya Leta akaba akiriho ayo mategura, akabamo abantu cyangwa bakayakoreramo ntibitere ikibazo. Ingero batanga ni aho Minisiteri y’ubuhinzi n’ubworozi ikorera, Kaminuza y’u Rwanda n’ibigo biyishamikiyeho, n’ahandi.
Abayobozi b’ikigo gishinzwe imiturire bavuga ko nta mitwe irimo, ko ikigamijwe ari ukurengera ubuzima bw’abaturarwanda. Umuyobozi wa RHA, Eng. Sagashya Didier avuga ko ubuvungukira bw’ayo mategura bumaze koreka imbaga mu bihugu byinshi, kubera indwara ya Cancer iterwa n’ubuvungukira bwayo. Ati “muri Canada yamaze abantu, hano mu Rwanda twafashe umwanzuro wo kwirinda kurusha kuvura”. Ubundi ngo aya mabati atagize aho yangirika na gatoya nta kibazo yatera abantu. Ngo ibibazo bitangira kuvuka iyo rigize aho rihongoka cyangwa hakagira urimanyura. Icyo gihe ni bwo ritumura umukungugu utagaragarira amaso, ari wo ujya mu bihaha ukabyangiza. Umukungugu uva muir iryo bati ushobora kwangiza ibihaha bya nyir’ugufata iki kimanyu ndetse n’abo bahuye, buke bukeya. Ingaruka z’uyu mukungugu zitangira kugaragara ku bantu bahuye na wo guhera ku myaka 20 nyuma yo kuwuhumeka.

Ihitana benshi muri Canada

Canada nicyo gihugu cya mbere cyatangiye gucukura asibesitosi, ahagana mu mwaka wa 1879, yari nkayo zahabu yayo. Mu mpera zikinyejana cya 19 gishyira icya 20, hafunguwe ibirombe byinshi bya asibesitosi hafi mu ntara zose z’iki gihugu. Uhereye kuri Quebec, Newfoundland, British Columbia na Yukon. Ibigo byinshi byitabiriye ubucukuzi bwayo bakurikiye ko ivamo ibikoresho byinshi bikoreshwa muri Canada no ku isi hose. Mu kinyejana cya 20, ubwoko busaga 4000 bwibikoresho byo mu rugo, byose byabaga bikomoka kuri asibesitosi.
Muri icyo gihe, amazu yose yubakwaga hifashishijwe asibesitosi kuva hasi kukera hejuru, inkuta, idari, pavement(soma pavoma), noneho n’ibikoresho byo murugo bikaba uko, ku buryo igipimo cy’indwara zishingiye kuri asibesitos cyatumbagiye ku bakozi bakora mu by’ubwubatsi mu myaka yashize kugeza n’ubu.
Uko bayibyazaga amafaranga ariko, niko nayo yagarikaga ingongo: abakozi bakarwara, bagakorora kugeza barutse amaraso, bakagira ibibazo by’ubuhumekero ndetse bagapfa. Muri za 1920, imfu z’abacukuzi zabaye nyinshi muri Canada, ku buryo ari abakozi ari n’abaturage bataciraga akari urutega amasosiyete acukura asibesitosi.
Mu 1930 ikigo cy’ubwishingizi Metropolitan Life Insurance gifatanije ba Mc Gill University baketse ko indwara y’ibihaha iri kugaragara mu bakozi yaba iva kuri asibesitosi. Bakoze ubushakashatsi ku bantu 200, basanga 42 muri bo bafite indwara iterwa n’ivumbi rya asibestosi. Nubwo butashyizwe ahagaragara, abanyamategeko basabye ko ibikorwa byo kwamamaza asibesitosi byagabanuka cyane.
Mu 1966, Canada niyo yihariye 40% by’umusaruro wa asibesitosi, naho mu 1970, abaganga bavuze ko imijyi ya Canada icukurwamo asibesitosi ariyo mibi ku isi ku bireba ubuzima, kuko indwara ziterwa nayo ziyongeraga buri munsi.
Muri Canada, asibesitosi niyo ica agahigo mu gutera imfu zituruka ku miturire, ikaba ifata 1/3 mu zindi ndwara zituruka ahakorerwa akazi kuva mu 1996. Inzobere mu by’ubuvuzi zivuga ko igipimo cy’abahitanwa nayo kitazamanuka vuba, ngo kuko umuntu ayimarana imyaka hagati ya 20 na 50 itarigaragaza. Bivuga ngo umubare w’abayirwaye nturamenyekana neza.
Ubucukuzi bwa asibesitosi bumaze imyaka isaga 4000, ariko bwakajije umurego mu mpera z’ikinyejana cya 19, ubwo abanyenganda n’abubatsi bari bamaze kuvumbura ubwiza bwayo: gukumira urusaku ntirugere mu nzu,gukomera kwayo, kudashya ngo ikongoke(kwihanganira inkongi z’umuriro), kuringaniza ubukonje n’ubushyuhe, kwihanganira amazi yinjira mu nzu, kudakwirakwiza umuriro w’amashanyarazi(igihe cy’impanuka), no kuba ihendutse. Ngibyo ibyatumye yitabirwa na benshi(inganda nyinshi) ku isi yose.Asibesitosi ziri mu mabara menshi:ubururu, ikijuju,umweru n’icyatsi.
Mu Rwanda umugambi wo guca aya mategura ya asibesitosi watangiye mu 2011, aho Leta yari yihaye gahunda yo kuba atakigaragara muri uyu mwaka wa 2016. Byaje no gufatwaho umwanzuro mu mwiherero wa 11 w’abayobozi wabereye I Gabiro mu 2014, ariko magingo aya hamaze gusamburwa agera kuri 45% gusa. Mu ibarura ryakozwe,byagaragaye ko mu Rwanda hari ubuso bugera ku kigeraranyo cya metero kare miliyoni 1 ibihumbi 308 na 259 z’ibisenge bya Asibesitosi. Muri bwo inyubako za Leta zikaba zifite 60% by’iryo sakaro ryose,16% muri ubwo buso ni inyubako z’abafatanyabikorwa ba Leta”abihayimana” naho 40% akaba ari inyubako z’abikorera n’abaturage.
Ibigo byinshi byarayasambuye(abantu ku giti cyabo, abihaye Imana, ibigo byigenga) ariko aracyagargara ku mazu ya Leta. Ikigo cy’imiturire mu Rwanda RHA kivuga ko Leta yahuguye abasambura ku buryo nibura muri buri murenge harimo umuntu ukora icyo gikorwa. Nyamara ngo ubushobozi bwabaye buke ku buryo batashoboye gusambura amazu ya Leta, cyane ko harimo n’ayahita asenywa. Gusa Eng Sagashya G. Didier avuga ko bagiye gushaka ikigo kimwe cyigenga kigasambura amazu ya Leta ku ideni cyangwa kikazishyurwa mu byiciro.

Karegeya Jean Baptiste


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