Yashyizweho kuri 6 June, 2016 | 08:31

« Ubukene bw’akarande ntibwashira hakiri ubusumbane hagati y’abagabo n’abagore »: Banki y’isi

Itsinda rya Banki y’isi rishinzwe kugabanya ubukene bukabije ryafashe ingamba 5 zirifasha kugera kuri iyo ntego mu 2030. Izo ngamba ni Ukwimakaza uburinganire n’ubwuzuzanye hagati y’abagabo n’abagore ; Guhosha amakimbirane, Imiyoborere myiza , Gukumira no guhangana n’ingaruka z’imihindagurikire y’ikirere, ndetse no Guhanga umurimo. Mu rwego rwo kongerera umugore ubushobozi, Banki y’isi yagiye itera inkunga ibihugu, ikora ubushakashatsi, kugira ngo ibitsina byombi bijye umujyo umwe mu guharanira ko isi yatera imbere.

Nk’uko iri tsinda ribitangaza, ngo hagati ya 2006 na 2016 habaye impinduka nziza ku mibereho y’abagore n’abakobwa, bikaba ari ibyo kwishimirwa nubwo bitabaye mu bihugu byose by’isi. Ngo haracyagaraga ubusumbane hagati y’abagabo n’abagore mu bijyanye n’ubukungu , mu kubona akazi no gushora imari, ibi bikabangamira ubwisanzure bw’abantu muri rusange, n’abagore by’umwihariko ; kandi bigatuma ubukungu bw’isi budatera imbere.

Umuti kuri ibi bibazo ushobora kuboneka ku buryo bworoshye cyangwa bugoye, ariko ugomba kuboneka ; bisaba gukaza umurego mu gushyikira imyigire y’umwana w’umukobwa akiga akarangiza, kugabanya imfu z’abagore bapfa babyara, korohereza abagore kubona imirimo myiza no kubafasha kugera ku mari n’imitungo bwite yabo.

Mu nyandiko yashyizwe ahagaragara mu mpera za Gicurasi 2016,
tsinda rya Banki y’isi rishinzwe kurwanya ubukenye ritanga inzira zafasha kugera kuri iyo ntego. Gukora ibishoboka byose abagore bakabaho neza kandi bakaramba, abakobwa bakiga amashuri yose bakeneye. Ibi bikaba bigoye kuko hakiri ibihugu abagore bapfa cyane kubera kutabona imiti ihagije. « Nubwo hari byinshi byo kwishimirwa, ku isi haracyari miliyoni 62 z’abakobwa batiga, n’abagore benshi bapfa babyara ». Banki y’isi ikaba yaribanze kuri Sahel, kamwe mu turere twugarijwe n’ubukene ku isi, aho yatanze miliyari 2 n’igice z’amadolari yo gufasha uburezi bw’umwana w’umukobwa, no gufasha abangavu ubuzima bugoye banyuramo hagati yo kurangiza amashuri no kubona akazi.

Iri tsinda kandi rivuga ko hagomba kugabanywa intera iri hagati y’abagabo n’abagore ku mahirwe mu by’ubukungu. Itsinda ryagaragaje ko uruhare rw’abagore mu bukungu bw’isi rukiri hasi cyane, aho abagore babona akazi gahoraho bangana na ½ cy’abagabo. Kubera ivangura mu kazi kandi, umushahara uhabwa abagore ku isi ungana na 1/3 cy’uhabwa abagabo. Ibi bikiyongera ku kongera umubare w’abagore bahabwa serivisi z’imari, kuko mu bihugu byinshi hari imbogamizi zishingiye ku mategeko n’imigenzo ibabuza kugira umutungo bigengaho, kugira Konti muri Banki, no guhabwa inguzanyo ku giti cyabo. Ku isi hagaragara ibigo bike biyoborwa n’abagore, bigakoresha abantu bake. Ikinyuranyo cy’imari y’abagabo n’iy’abagore gisaga miliyari 300 z’amadolari, abagore bafite Konti muri Banki bari 58% mu 2014, ku bagabo 65%.

Amategeko nayo ni kimwe mu bigomba kurebwaho. Nk’uko iri tsinda ribivuga, kuvugurura amategeko n’imigenzo ibuza abagore gufata ijambo mu ruhame no mu ngo zabo ni ingenzi, ku buryo abahungu n’abakobwa bagira uruhare rungana mu muryango. Ikintu cyo kwishimirwa, ni uko hashize imyaka 25 yose, ibihugu byose 127 bishyizeho amategeko abuza ihohoterwa rikorerwa mu ngo, ariko 90% byabyo biracyafite nibura itegeko ribuza abagore kugira umutungo. Haracyari ibihugu 100 birimo imyuga imwe n’imwe ibujijwe ku bagore(nko gutwara imodoka, gukora amazi, ububaji, gusudira, gutwara ubwato n’indege, n’ibindi).

U Rwanda rwateye intambwe

Banki y’isi ivuga ko itsinda ryayo rikigowe no kubona amakuru nyayo ku mibereho y’abagore mu bihugu bikennye cyane, ku buryo kumenya ibibazo bihari ari ingorane, bityo kubifatira ingamba no kumenya impinduka bikaba bitoroshye.
Amategeko yo mu Rwanda aha uburenganzira bungana benerwo, uhereye ku ngingo ya 15 n’iya 16 z’itegeko nshinga rya repubulika y’u rwanda ryo kuwa 04/6/2003 ryavuguruye 24/12/2015. Izi ngingo zigira ziti « Abantu bose barareshya imbere y’amategeko, itegeko ribarengera ku buryo bumwe » kandi « Abanyarwanda bose bavukana kandi bagakomeza kugira uburenganzira n’ubwisanzure bingana. Itegeko nshinga ryunganirwa n’amategeko asanzwe : Itegeko n° 22/99 ryo ku wa 12/11/1999 ryerekeye imicungire y’umutungo w’abashyingiranywe, impano n’ izungura, Itegeko nº 42/1988 ryo ku wa 27 ukwakira 1988, interuro y’ibanze n’igitabo cya mbere cy’urwunge rw’amategeko mbonezamubano, Itegeko ngenga n°43/2013 ryo ku wa 16/06/2013 rigenga ubutaka mu rwanda.

Abanyarwandakazi bagira uruhare rungana n’urwa basaza babo mu iterambere ry’igihugu, kuko abari mu nteko ishinga mategeko barenga 50%, mu zindi nzego bakaba batajya munsi ya 30% nk’uko babigenerwa n’amategeko. Mu itangwa ry’akazi bahabwa amahirwe asumba ay’abagabo, mu mashuri nibo benshi kuko bo bafatirwa ku manota make ugeranije na basaza babo, mu rwego rwo kubazamura ngo bagere aho bagira uruhare ruhamye mu bukungu bw’igihugu cyabo n’ubw’isi muri rusange.

Mu Rwanda hari abagore ba Rwiyemezamirimo benshi, abayoboye ibigo ni benshi, kandi abagana amabanki nabo ni benshi kuko hari na Banki zifite inshingano zihariye zo guha inguzanyo abagore(COPEDU, Urwego,) bakanagira ikigega kigenewe kubabera ingwate.U Rwanda kandi ubu nirwo ruyoboye urutonde rw’isi muri gahunda ya “HE for SHE”, gahunda mpuzamahanga yo kongerera ubushobozi no kubaka icyizere mu bagore bikozwe n’abagabo.

Karegeya Jean Baptiste


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